06 February, 2013

Motivational Theory: The Corrective Reading Program [Part 2]

Correctie Reading & Attribution Approach to Motivation

The Corrective Reading (2008) program, being an intensive reading intervention program recognizes that students that place into the program may either attribute their lack of reading success to intrinsic or extrinsic factors that are as Martinez (2010) indicated, either stable or unstable and either controllable or uncontrollable.  Evidence of this can be found in the scripted routine cards that remind teachers to provide positive verbal reinforcement to students as they [the students] indicate that learning [or successful application] of a skill or strategy occurred.  These occurrences of praise encourage students to recognize that the effort that they put forth during the lesson lead to the successful acquisition [or application] of a skill or strategy that was taught.  Martinez (2010) posited,
Effort is arguably the most desirable attribution.  Effort is universally adaptive because if a person has experienced success, that person will continue to apply effort in the future.  If there has been a failure or setback, there is recourse to trying again and trying harder (p.170).
Not only is Martinez's (2010) point evident in the scripted routines within the program, but it is also embedded in the design of the program that is based on students learning to mastery.

The goal of attributing success and setbacks to student effort through attention and engagement during instruction is also encouraged during the professional development that teachers engage in prior to teaching the program.  It is critical that teachers understand the importance of controlling the learning environment ~ that is, the instruction that is being provided so that students are able to understand and internalize what is being taught.  When student errors occur they are identified as information of either ambiguous instruction or the need for additional practice.  The teacher models the correct understanding [as provided by the program] encouraging students to re-process the pattern of instruction that is being provided and then engages the students in trying again (Marchand-Martella, Slocum, & Martella, 2004).  Upon completion of the teacher-directed instruction whereas students are brought to a high level of success in the skills or strategies that were taught, students are provided student-centered activities to complete.  During the student-centered activities students engage in applying what was taught [and learned at a high level of accuracy] during the teacher-directed instruction in a meaningful way that is independent and reflective of student learning.  The successful application of learning at an independent level reinforces that learning is related to effort.  The message to the students is, with hard work, attention to detail, and practice, you will learn; all of which are prominent elements within the domain of effort.


Engelman, S., Hanner, S., & Johnson, G. (2008). Corrective reading: Series Guide. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill

Marchand-Martella, N. E., Slocum, T. A., & Martella, R. C. (2004). Introduction to direct instruction. New York, NY: Pearson Education Inc..

Martinez, M. E. (2010). Learning and cognition: The design of the mind. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill, Pearson Education Inc..

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