Initial Investigatory Stage & Communicative Devices:
During the initial investigatory stage, the goal of the pre-observation meeting is three-fold: Gather information about instructional challenges, Gather information about student needs, and Gather information about cultural norms specific to the school, grade leve, and curriculum (Knight, 2007). During the pre-observation meeting the observation form and corresponding criteria that will be used during the classroom observation is provided to the teacher for explanation and discussion.
ObservationThe initial observation is scheduled to occur during class instruction and focus on the three domains attributed to effective teaching as outlined on the observation form: Classroom Management, Curriculum use, and Instructional delivery (Marzano, Marzano, & Pickering, 2009).
Domains Attributed to Effective Teaching [The Observation Form]
- Classroom Management: This domain includes a concise set of critical behaviors that take into account the classroom as an environment. Classroom structure, rules, procedures, and the consistency with which the teacher implements those components compose the basis of the section.
- Instructional Delivery: This domain focuses on identifying to what extent a teacher delivers instruction using evidence-based strategies aligned with research. Primary sources used in creating the critical behaviors in this section were derived from: Coyne, Kame'enui, & Carnine (2007), Friedman, Harwell, & Schnepel (2006), Hattie (2009), and Lemov (2010).
- Curriculum Use: This domain is interchangeable as schools address a variety of curriclum and use a varitey of programs. The critical behaviors focus on the teacher's execution of predefined formats, routines, and sequence of instruction as outlined within the respective program.
Post-ObservationThe post observation meeting focuses on the provision of critical feedback related to the observation. The post observation meeting begins with a review of the information gathered during the pre-observation meeting: identified instructional and students needs, and pertinent information regarding cultural norms. Information extracted from the completed observation form is coordinated with information gathered during the pre-observation meeting to establish [develop] themes. The completed observation form is shared with the teacher and any themes that emerge are reviewed [by domain]. Affirmation of effective teaching are highlighted for the teacher and suggestions of support derived from patterns of need are shared. Support is aligned with evidence-based strategies identified as having a positive impact on student achievement in the domains attributed to effective teaching.
Friedman, M.I., Harwell, D.H., & Schnepel, K.C. (2006). Effective instruction: A handbook of evidence-based strategies. Columbia, SC: The Institute for Evidence-based Decision-making in Educatioin Inc.
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge Publishing
Knight, J. (2007). Instructional coaching: A partnership approach to improving instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Lemov, D. (2010). Teach like a champion: 49 techniques that put students on the path to college. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
Marzano, R., Marzano, J., & Pickering, D. (2009). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandria, VA: ASCD