04 December, 2012

Supervision & Evaluation: A Model

The purpose of the following posts is to provide an example of a Curriculum and Instruction Appraisal model that includes both formative and summative phases of support focused on increasing student achievement by increasing teacher proficiency through supervision.  The process involved in creating this portion of a greater evaluation model as indicated in figure 1 began with the application of a backward design approach (Wiggins & McTighe, 2005).  Beginning with the goal in mind, an increase in both student achievement and teacher excellence, the model was built to be incorporated into an evaluation system that focuses on an alignment among professional development, supervisory support, and evaluation.

Figure 1
Conceptual Framework:

The conceptual framework from which the model of supervision was derived included aspects from three primary theories: Clinical Supervision, Instructional Coaching, and Developmental Learning.  As aspects from each theory converge, a comprehensive model of supervision targeted to promote teacher growth emerges.  Three critical forms were developed within the model to assist with teacher interactions, to monitor progress [the acquisition of skill], and to document the allocation of resources: Pre-observation, Observation, Post-observation.

The Hunter model (as cited in Glatthorn, Boschee, & Whitehead, 2009) and clinical supervision provided the framework upon which the observation form was based upon.  The observation form was created in alignment with the concept that a template consisting of critical behaviors steeped in evidence-based practices could be created as an anticipatory set that teachers could draw upon and increase teacher proficiency (Glatthorn, Boschee, & Whitehead, 2009).  The critical behaviors from which the observation form subscribed were derived from research aligned with Coyne, Kame'enui, and Carnine (2007), Freidman, Harwell, and Schnepel (2006), Hattie (2009), and Lemov (2010).

Instructional coaching is the mode from which the supervisor delivers support using the three observation forms.  Instructional coaching is defined as a non-evaluative means from which to provide support to teachers in the delivery and organization of instruction (Taylor, 2008).  Instructional coaching as applied in this model purposefully strayed from the popular literature use of a partnership/collaborative model (Knight, 2007) and instead approached the process of coaching from a consultant/expert construct that focused on a modified Dreyfus model of skill acquisition.  This provided for the seamless application of a developmental approach to the provision of individualized support to teachers.  The frequency and intensity of the support provided to teachers could then be assigned and differentiated based on the level of skill acquisition demonstrated by the teacher.


Coyne, Kame'enui, E., & Carnine, D. (2007).  Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners, 4th Edition. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Friedman, M.I., Harwell, D.H., & Schnepel, K.C. (2006). Effective instruction: A handbook of evidence-based strategies. Columbia, SC: The Institute for Evidence-based Decision-making in Educatioin Inc.

Glatthorn, A. A., Boschee, F., & Whitehead, B. M. (2009). Curriculum leadership: Strategies for development and implementation (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge Publishing

Knight, J. (2007). Instructional coaching: A partnership approach to improving instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Lemov, D. (2010). Teach like a champion: 49 techniques that put students on the path to college. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass

Taylor, J. E. (2008). Instructional coaching: The state of the art. In M. M. Mangin, & S. R. Stoelinga (Eds.), Effective Teacher Leadership: Using research to inform and reform (pp. 10-35). New York, NY: Teacher’s College Columbia University.

Wiggins, G. P., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

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