29 January, 2013

Motivational Theory: The Corrective Reading Program

About Corrective Reading:

The Corrective Reading program (Engelman, S., Hanner, S., & Johnson, G, 2008) is an intensive reading intervention program that most closely subscribes to the operant conditioning and cognitive information processing approaches to learning.  Utilizing a direct instruction approach as applied to student learning, the Corrective Reading program (Engelman et al, 2008) directs its attention on teacher and student interaction throughout the presentation of instruction. The direct instruction model encourages high levels of student-teacher interaction throughout lessons stimulated by teacher engagement in specific critical behaviors aligned with best practices and careful monitoring of student responses (Huitt, 2003).  This approach, when executed with proficiency, directly impacts four basic effects of motivation as outlined by Ormrod (2008):

  • Individuals' activity and energy levels are increased
  • Clear expectations direct individuals toward explicit goals
  • Mastery teaching promotes peresistence in activities
  • Unambiguous instruction promotes the use of evidence-based learning strategies that are highly generalizable.

Corrective Reading & Goal Oriented Motivation

The Corrective Reading program (Engelman et al, 2008) is most closely aligned to a goal oriented model of motivation that appears to be extrinsic in its approach.  As provided by Gredler (2009), goal oriented models of motivation center around behavioral intentions that encourage mastery learning, progression and attainment of skills, and an increase in self-efficacy through the experience of success.  Through the use of a carefully constructed program design coordinated with effective delivery practices, the Corrective Reading program (Engelman et al, 2008) addresses each of the goal oriented intentions.  For example, through on-going progress monitoring tools and clearly defined remediation strategies that parallel carefully planned corrective feedback and encouragement, the Corrective Reading program (Engelman et al, 2008) is created to hinge on student mastery of information that is presented.  Carefully sequenced activities that follow a track based model encouraging mastery of pre-skills that build upon each other until they can be applied as rules across multiple occurrences provides students with an understanding and the recognition of self progression as new skills are learned.  As Bandura (1994) indicated, the attainment and the recognition of success, in this case the acquisition of academic skills, breeds an increase in self-esteem as well as self-efficacy as students progress through the program.

While the Corrective Reading program (Engelman et al, 2008) is carefully constructed to encourage extrinsic motivation through a goal oriented model of motivation that is effective in keeping students engaged in instruction and interested in learning, it is important to recognize that there is an embedded approach within the program focused on fostering intrinsic motivation that is closely aligned with the attribution approach to motivation.


Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol.4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H. Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).

Engelman, S., Hanner, S., & Johnson, G. (2008). Corrective reading: Series Guide. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill

Gredler, M. E. (2009). Learning and instruction: Theory into practice (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Huitt, W. (2003). The information processing approach to cognition. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cogsys/infoproc.html

Ormrod, J. E. (2008). Human learning (5th ed.). Upper Sadler River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

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